The lecture provides examples of the influence of weather conditions on the outcome of some major battles in western Eurasia which will include the great naval battle of Salamis during the last Persian invasion (480 BC) of Greece, during which the Greek fleet trapped the large Persian fleet in the straits of Salamis at the end of the season of the Etesian winds, greatly facilitating the Persian defeat. A second example concerns the Nazi campaign in Russia in 1941/1942, where the decisive weather factor triggered by unusual La Ninia effects produced one of the coldest winters in the history of the region. Only slightly less severe were the conditions faced by Napoleon in western Russia in 1812-1813, leading to the disaster that befell his Grande Armée. The talk will offer comparisons between events and historical memory.

This event will be held at the auditorium of the Byzantine Museum, 22 Vassilissis Sofias Avenue, Athens.

Christos Zerefos is Head of the Research Center for Atmospheric Physics and Climatology, Academy of Athens and Professor Emeritus, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment,  University of Athens.  He is widely known for his research in ozone, UV, ozone-climate interactions and climate extreme events. A member of numerous distinguished scientific societies, Christos Zerefos is the recipient of the UNEP Global Ozone Award, 1997 and has been honored with a number of distinctions, awards and medals from WMO/UNEP and several scientific societies. His research work in peer reviewed scientific journals is acknowledged widely by the scientific community.  Web site:

Event Co-sponsor(s)
Climate Change and History Research Initiative