French Communist Résistants were deported in disproportionate number to concentration camps during the Second World War. In the decades following the Liberation, the Party memorialized its martyrs, devoting a corner of Père-Lachaise cemetery in Paris to a remarkable ensemble of monuments. Yet, it was not just in stone that the dead were remembered but in literature and painting as well. Not all such remembrances, moreover, were executed in the socialist realist mold, as confrontation with the work of Robert Antelme and Pablo Picasso will attest. And the Party’s memorialization efforts were not just devoted to remembering fallen comrades. The Communist world developed an understanding of its own as to the meaning of the camp experience, and it was one that helped to orient believers in the political present. The anti-fascist struggle was not over and done with but ongoing, and memories of the camps helped to identify who fascism’s heirs were in the postwar world.

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