A study of the fundamental questions of political theory framed by the institutions and writings of ancient Greek, Roman, and medieval thinkers. Highlights include the meaning of justice in Plato's "Republic" and the accounts of citizens and constitutions in Aristotle's "Politics"; Cicero's grappling with the purpose of the Roman republic; and Augustine's challenge to such accounts in light of divine purposes. We then turn to Thomist approaches to ethics and politics, and conclude with medieval controversies about the relation between church and state.