This course covers the critical developments of 20th and 21st century Europe, in particular the consolidation of democracy in European countries and subsequent challenges democracy is facing. It deals with the legacy of the two world wars, Nazism, Stalinism, the Cold War, colonialism and decolonization, the collapse of Communism and the re-unification of Europe, the birth and development of the European Community, the creation of the welfare state, single currency, as well as the problems of immigration, enlargement, the role of various political institutions, including the military, and the recent rise of populism.